Colfax County was originally part of Taos County, one of the original nine counties created by the New Mexico Territory in 1852.In 1859, the eastern part of Taos County was split off to form Mora County.
Colfax County was established in 1869 from the northern part of Mora County and the original county seat was the gold mining town of Elizabethtown. By 1872, the county seat was moved to Cimarron, which was on the stagecoach route along the Mountain Branch of the Santa Fe Trail. The county courthouse in Cimarron is a contributing structure in the historic district and is still in use as a Masonic lodge.
In 1881, the county seat moved from Cimarron to Springer, which is closer to the railroad. The Colfax County Courthouse in Springer was the site of one of the last important shoot-outs in the Colfax County War. Once again, after referendum and a bitter legislative fight, the county seat moved from Springer to Raton in 1897, which was an important coal-mining town and a railroad center. Colfax County has a population of approximately 12,253 and encompasses an area of 3,768 square miles. A large portion of the county lies in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains. The county contains numerous state parks, ski resorts, national forests, scenic vistas, and outdoor recreational activities.
Colfax County is an Equal Opportunity Employer.