Guadalupe County was named after Nuestra Senora de Guadalupe, (Our Lady of Guadalupe, or after the Mesita de Guadalupe (Guadalupe Plain).
The county was created from the southern portion of San Miguel County on February 26, 1891 by an act of the New Mexico Territorial Legislature. The original county seat was Puerto De Luna, but was moved north to Santa Rosa in 1903. That same year, after the popular Spanish-American War of 1898, the county’s name was changed to Leonard Wood County after the Presidential physician, Major General in Rough Riders. The name was later changed back to Guadalupe County. The county is comprised of several previous Spanish land grants that include the Aqua Negra, the Jose Perea, the Anton Chico, and the Preston Beck land grants.
Guadalupe County is the fifth-least populous county in New Mexico with approximately 4,376 and has a total area of 3,032 square miles of land. Santa Rosa boasts the famous Blue Hole, an 81-foot deep natural artesian spring used by scuba divers and swimmers.