Roosevelt County was created in 1903 from Chaves and Guadalupe counties and named for President Theodore Roosevelt.
The county’s eastern border is the Texas state line. The county seat is in the most populous city of Portales. The county population is approximately 19,082 covering a total area of 2,455 square miles. There are 106 ghost towns in the county, and was once home to the largest windmill collection in the nation.
Roosevelt County is known for a steady growth in agriculture with peanuts, sweet potatoes, cotton, feed grains, and wheat crops. In recent years, larger dairies have located in the county and support several major dairy product industries in the area. Eastern New Mexico Junior College was established in 1934.